China's unification and division(Mr. Jung-Sun Kim)-1



by Kim Jung Sun


When studying a conventional research trend with respect to China and Twain, it was known that Ching dynasty entered into an age of corruption after the Opium war while suffering from a big social problem. The largest revolutionary power generated along with the corruption of Ching dynasty was the China promotion association lead by Shunwon who organized the anti-Ching revolutionary group and lead a numerous number of movements until the establishment of Taiwan in 1911 and organized a numerous number of revolutionary groups, of which the most important revolutionary groups were China promotion association and cooperation association. As vigorous movements, there were Chinese revolution and Muchang movement which most influenced the formation of Taiwan. As Taiwan was born, Chinese Kookmin-party was established as an official political party. Communist party, which was another political party with the help of the old Soviet Union, was organized in the mainland of China and was officially established along with 5.4 movement which was an anti-Japan movement occurred due to Sandong problem on May 4, 1919. At this time, the nation-communist union, which was the subject of the present article, was established. As Ching dynasty was destroyed by Shunwon, a large number of militaries were formed in the mainland China, and Shunwon planned a certain unification with the help of an external support for the unification of China and cooperated with the old Soviet Union. So, he absorbed the communist party 1924 and changed the Kookmin-party, which was called a first nation-communist union.


On March 12, 1925, the next year of the first nation-communist union, when Shunwon died, Chiang Kai-shek inherited his father and achieved the unification. However, the relationship between the Kookmin-party and the communist party were worsened, and as Chiang Kai-shek fought, the communist party fled to the coastal area, starting a long journey movement so-called 2-man 5-chunri movement, so the first collaboration was broken. As the communist party fled to the coastal area,Chiang Kai-shek sent the military of Chang Hak-ryang staying in the east north region to the west coast so as to perform the fifth communist destroying strategy, but unfortunately Chang hak-ryang and Yang Ho-sung betrayed him and arrested in the course of his inspection in the west coast area, which was called the west coast accident. At this time, Japan manipulated9.18 accident and 7.7 accident on September 1931 and July 1936 with an ambition of entering the main land and invaded China. At this time, Chiang Kai-shek announced the anti-Japan statement against Japanese invasion throughout the nation and formed the second nation-communist union, which resulted in the communist party entering into the Palro corps of the nation military.


Subsequently, as the 8-year anti-Japan war ended, the second collaboration was broken. As a result of the analysis on the reasons of the first and second collaboration, in the first collaboration, it was possible with the help of the external power, namely, the old soviet union and the inner military power, and in the second collaboration, it was possible with the help of the external power, namely, Japan and the inner military power. The present article is based on the above situation and problems and a functional relationship. The key issue of the present article resides in the plan concerning the 21st century China unification.


The wide meaning concerning the base foundation and research for the China unification is suggested as one system in the frame of the total concept, and the present article suggests Chinese foreign policy and Chinese Taiwan policy and USA both-coastal region policy which might affect the decision of an appropriate Chine unification along with a theory analysis.


The potential economical value which is called an international environment foundation helpful to the economic development in one China policy and one-nation two system unification system to be suggested by the present article might contain through the actual analysis the wide meaning of the anti imperialism in reverse of the procedure that forms the interrelationship, so that the above analysis becomes a theoretical basis of the present article with respect to the development of the Taiwan policy.


In order to maintain the Chinese foreign policy provided in the present article before discussing the macro unification plan called China unification, a comprehensive diagnosis in regard to the entire peace and development and multi polarization are needed with respect to the international rule in the age of post cold war.


In the course of the Chinese foreign policy development based on the above trends, the background on the wide meaning called China unification general and comprehensive in cooperation with the combined structure with respect to the foreign policy along with the theoretical assumption with on the following three targets will be described in the below.


First, China is needed to create the international environment for continuously propelling the modernization and economy development through the reform and opening which are the most important problems currently facing China. Second, China is needed to obtain a specific posture and role as a local power in the East Asia while prohibiting USA imperialism and a power structure in the East Asia region of USA and Japan. Third, China is needed to build a nation's unification by resolving Taiwan problem along with the returns of Hong Kong in 1997 and Macao in 1999.

China is used to announcing the economic development through reform and opening as the most important nation's problem by building the international environment useful for achieving the same.


In relation with which, China is trying to consider the economic development through reform and opening as the nation's most important issue and to build the international environment useful for achieving the same. In order to achieve the above, China is trying to keep a good relation with the neighboring nations. In addition, China is frequently participating into various international organizations, and is trying to take a positive stance international rules and systems. Concerning the international disputes and conflicts, "Same goal, different existing" becomes its new policy, and it is an object of China to obtain China unification while expanding cooperation in order to pursue common benefits. As a result of which, Chinese foreign policy might look a means-based foreign policy for only China unification. So, it can be defined that Anti-imperialism is formed.

China maintain one certain policy called one China unification with respect to the problems with Taiwan, while strongly protesting the United States' weapon export to Taiwan preventing a relationship with USA from being worsened.


As one of the Chinese foreign policy, the anti-imperialism is based on "three-world policy" by Mao Ze-dong which is supported from "intermediate region theory" that China opposes two super powers of USA and Soviet union. Since China considers the United States and Soviet union as enemies based on "three-world policy", the third world can be considered as two powers with the supports from the second world, and it is needed to fight the United States and Soviet Union which are the first world.


Based on which, China defines the Taiwan policy for China unification along with "one China" policy and "one nation, two systems" policy.

"One China" policy comes from a long time legitimacy that means which nation inherits China. China asserts that the legitimacy with respect to China in 1949 comes from People's Republic of China of Beijing government with respect to China. So, the sovereignty of China belongs to Beijing government, and Taiwan is considered as a province of China which does not have any sovereignty as a nation.


One China policy that China asserts means as follows.


First, even though the political power has been changed for 5000 years, the unified China has been maintained. Second, China has disappeared due to the foundation of "People's Republic of China", and People's Republic of China inherited its legitimacy. So, Taiwan is just a province of China. Third, Taiwan has become the territory of China since Japan assigned Taiwan to China based on the announcements of Cairo and Potsdam historically. Since Taiwan rejects the unification and is under the protection of the United States, so it is actually impossible to rule Taiwan, but it is impossible to assert that Taiwan is not part of the territory of China. Fourth, it seems that China and Taiwan remain separated from each other, which is basically different from Koreas and Germany before the unification. Namely, China is not divided into two, but China has always been one based on the international law, so "two bodies which are politically different from each other" or "two nation system" that Taiwan asserts can be not acceptable by China.


Meanwhile, first "One China"that Taiwan asserts is China based on history, geography, culture and blood relationship. Second, "People's Republic of China" cannot represent the entire China, and Taiwan is not one province of China. Third, it seems that China and Taiwan are not dependent to each other and are politically different bodies, not presenting each other.


"One nation, two systems" that China asserts as a unification plan with Taiwan is characterized in that two systems, socialism and capitalism, exists in a sovereignty range of People's Republic of China, which does not mean two social systems simply existing and political bodies which are opponent to each other. The socialism system based on the constitution of China is considered as a main body, and two systems are propelled for a co-development. According to which, a master-slave system is provided between two systems. Under one nation, two systems, the sovereignty first belongs to China, and Taiwan keeps a high level authority which means a limited authority assigned from the central government.

Taiwan opposes one nation, two-system policy proposed by China for the reasons that one nation, two system policies by China is not intended to guarantee equal positions between two governments, and according to the one nation, two system policy by China, Taiwan is considered as only one province of China. So, Taiwan suggested a unification policy of one nation, two governments with respect to one nation, two system of China. According to one nation, two government policy of Taiwan in June 1990, there are two governments in Taiwan and China, so it is considerable to set one nation, two governments which are independent from each other. It seems that one nation, two government suggested by Taiwan is basically designed to emphasize that Taiwan has the same political power as China.


As described above, it seems that Chinese stance and Taiwanese stance on one China policy are not narrowed producing conflicts. Since Taiwan asserts two government policy which means the same power as China whereas China does not give up to assert one China policy and one nation, two systems policy, it is hard to resolve the Taiwan problems.


Taiwanese policy with respect to one China policy and one nation, two system policy of China will be described as follows.


One China policy and Taiwan problem include a Chinese stance and policy direction surrounding the Taiwan problem, and in particular a logical assertion asserting why China should be one and a nation and people's mind are disclosed so as to protect the above principle. According to the white paper, there is disclosed a legal basis concerning one China policy. The force execution that was limited to a Taiwan independence attempt and a foreign country's Taiwan invasion has a widened range to the extent that when Taiwan neglects a peace unification negotiation limitlessly as a precondition, which represents that China has reconfirmed one China policy before Taiwan faces a president election, by which the president candidates and Taiwanese do not support foreign forces such as USA before election.


As described above, China continues to keep a basic stance and policy with respect to Taiwan after reform and opening. The policy of China with respect to Taiwan is basically directly to a peace unification based on one nation, two systems along with one China. China asserts that the Taiwan problem belongs to an inner problem of China, so that any interference from foreign countries is excluded. According to China, the peaceful unification plan is maintained, but in the end a forced plan can be adapted.


With respect to which, the United States on the both-coastal region problem keeps a certain force with respect to the forced invasion of China as the super power nation which affects the foreign policy of China with respect to the Taiwan problem. The policy change of the United States might be decisive with respect to the foreign policy of China.


There are two main forced streams surrounding the policy with respect to China in the United States after the post cold war. First, there is a soft line asserting an engagement by China. They assert that when the United States keeps a strong stance against China, it might hurt the nation's benefit, so a soft engagement policy is needed. Second, there is another group that asserts a negative stance with respect to an inter-dependency in view of economy. Namely, this group asserts a strong policy against China. This group believes that China currently keeps an international rule for the need of economy development, but in the end after the completion of development, China will invade Taiwan with a strong power along with a military expansion as it did in the past.


In the course of dispute in the United States on the foreign policy against China, the United States continuously keeps a stance a dual-track policy in view of the both-coastal region policy. On the surface, the United States supports one China policy, but keeps a formal relationship with China and an informal relationship with China. However it is important to know that such USA policy is a constant policy after the normalization with China in 1979.


The United States' ambiguous policy on the Taiwan problem can be characterized in the following three points. The United States did not disclose a clear stance with respect to the defense of Taiwan. Taiwan-related law keeps an ambiguous stance on whether to support or not Taiwan under a certain condition. Second, it can be characterized as a weapon export to Taiwan. There is not an accurate definition. Third, a future stance of Taiwan will be important. The United States supports one China policy, but does not disclose a clear stance on the further condition of Taiwan.

As mentioned above, the United States does not want to discard both China and Taiwan in order to promote nation's benefit, so it is expected that the United States will focus on the relationship development with China, and on the other hand the United States wants to keep the current situation with China and Taiwan through an informal channel for thereby maximizing the political, economical and military benefits. Since China does not allow Taiwan to be dependent, so it is expected that China will use force. In this case, the United States inevitably will face a military invasion, and when China and Taiwan are unified, the United States will lose for pressing both China and Taiwan, as a result of which the threat by China will become real. So, the United States currently wants to maximize nation's benefits while keeping the current situation between China and Taiwan.


The United States' dual track policy produced based on the strategic ambiguity of the United States was confirmed in case of Taiwan strait crisis in 1955~1996. At this time, the United States repeated keeping of joint announcement three times engaged between China and the United States which is summarized as one chain and Taiwan is part of China suggested by China. The three times joint announcement between China and the United States are Shanghai joint announcement in 1972, joint announcement made at the time when establishing a relationship in 1979, and 8.17 joint announcement in 1982 in which it was promised that the performance and quantity of the weapon sold from the United Statesto Taiwan will not exceed the supply made over the past years, and the sale of weapon to Taiwan will gradually decrease, and this kind of problem will be finally resolved.


However the United States dispatched an aircraft carrier when China threatened Taiwan with military, which shows that the United States did not give up the relationship with Taiwan. Since then, the United States repeatedly emphasized one China policy an three No's position with respect to Taiwan problem to Chinese government when Clinton had a summit in Washington with Kang Taek-min in 1997, and when the US foreign minister Albright visited China in May 1998 and when Clinton visited China in June 1998.


The United States keeps a dual-track policy based on the strategic ambiguity in view of both-coastal region problem while maintaining a clear stance against Chinese force use to Taiwan and the independence of Taiwan. As the United States showed at the time of Taiwan strait crisis in 1995~1996, the United States keeps a clear stance against the use of force by China, and the United States discloses that Taiwan Relation Act does not contain any contents for defending Taiwan to the Taiwan independent activists residing in Taiwan.


In the above situation, what kind of plan is being set for the unification of China? Where does a plan and complementary relationship concerning the decision of unification come from? The present article is basically directed to discussing the alternative plan on the above matters.