국제로비스트_National Defence_THE YULGOK PROJECT SYSTEM (Mr. Jung-Sun Kim)_10

 

 

Weapon System, Strategy and Tactics

 

 

It has been frequently discussed whether new military strategy leads to weapon system renovation, or if new weapon systems lead to changes in military strategy.

 

Regardless, military strategy and weapon systems are related to each other. For maximum effect, changes in military strategy and structure should accompany new weapon systems.

 

These days, it is common to develop weapon systems in relation to military strategy and military structure.

 

As weapons are modernized, they require higher operation and maintenance costs, but combat preparedness costs should be kept to a minimum due to restrictions in the national defense budget. Regretfully, however, I am doubtful about predicting the historical developments based upon the relationship between weapon systems, military strategy and military structure.

 

Both advanced and developing countries have been working to design a reasonable military power as required by the country’s specific conditions. These conditions include the nature of present and potential threats, the national defense budget as based upon economic power, and technology and personnel training in military organizations.

 

 

Military power of western advance empires and weapon systems

 

Advanced western empires, including the U.S., overcame quantitative disadvantages with qualitative advantages.

 

They have traditionally tried to save labor with technology by maintaining abundant capital resources, highly advanced science and technology, and a strong industrial base. Consequently, their military principle counsels use of a ‘small elite group, regardless of disadvantage in quantity’.

 

Small elite military structures based upon high investment and low consumption was preferred to low investment and high consumption weapon systems of large military structure. However, the military philosophy of advanced western empires fails in the following ways.

 

Firstly, if a nation increases its quality while occupying an advantage in quantity, the advantage of having a small but elite force will disappear due to the offset between quantity and quality.

 

Secondly, although elite groupings of weapon systems have caused combat personnel to be replaced by science and technology in combat operations, in light of supply and maintenance, more technical personnel are needed, which results in higher maintenance costs.

 

Thirdly, even if a weapon system is inexpensive, easy to manipulate, and manufactured on a large scale, high costs must be incurred throughout the life span of the weapon to promote high functioning and efficiency.

 

In addition, if precision guided weapons are involved, low investment high consumption weapon systems have an advantage over high investment low consumption weapons systems because the former will sustain less damage and more targets will remain untouched by the opponent. Consequently, a system consisting of five tanks with simplistic functions and structure is better than a similarly priced system consisting of one tank with advanced functions and a complicated structure.

 

Therefore, advanced western empires will reduce cost of weapon systems otherwise, if they expand defense the budget due to high maintenance cost, weapon systems of high cost will be reduced and weapon systems of low cost and high technology will be expanded. This weapon system will become dominant and will gradually change the military principles and structure of advanced western empires.

 

 

Military power of developing countries and weapon systems

 

Unlike advanced western empires that rely on capital-intensive armies, developing countries with weak economic bases and low levels of technologyrely on their abundant population to feed labor-intensive armies. They have attempted to maintain advanced combat preparedness based upon a weapon system of procurement cost-operation cost.

 

The development of science and technology has led to the present trend in the military in which labor-intensive armies are being converted to capital-intensive ones.

 

However, developing countries do not have capital-intensive, high technology armies with only the largest selection of up-to-date weapons and equipment.

 

What is significant is their capacity to develop integrated weapon systems and military structures, strategy, and tactics, as well as whatever wealth potentially available to produce up-to-date weapons and equipment.

 

For effective operation, the selection of a weapon system, regardless of whether a nation is capital-intensive or labor-intensive,should affect formation, organization and operations’ principles.

 

Consequently, when selecting a weapon system, individual weapons should be considered in terms of improvement to mechanical function. In other words, the expansion of firearms’ launch speed, range distance, and hit rate, and the expansion of maneuverable equipment’s speed, maximum load, and cruising distance must be considered.

 

First of all, however, each weapon system should be selected on the grounds that its organic association exerts total combat power for an integration of military principles, structures, strategies, and tactics.

 

It is because it is common that single weapons could improve loss rate even after function improvement, not renovation improvement such as nuclear weapon. In addition, however good a weapon may be, it will be a useless instrument if it is not operated effectively.

Relation to a weapon system, and strategy and tactics

 

Weapon system, strategy and tactics have been interrelated since times of ancient warfare. As shown in <Figure 3-3-1>, to achieve a national goal, an army must be provided with a military objective, and thereby establish a military strategy. Similarly, to achieve the objective, the weapon system should be developed according to the requisites of the strategy.

 

In addition, military strategy objectives focus on finding weaknesses in opponents and in diminishing its own weaknesses. A practical strategy, that is, a war strategy including maneuverable striking and guarding that exploits the enemy’s weaknesses, has been developed with weapon systems and structures where the weapon system is closely related to the means of the maneuver and strike.

 

As shown in <Table 3-3-1> and <Table 3-3-2>, military strategy has developed along with military technology and the development of weapon systems. Examples of these developments include the invention of gunpowder and of steel technology which made the castle wall ineffective, the invention of the steam engine which extended the boundaries of war across wide expanses of land, and the invention of machine guns, field guns, tanks, submarines and aircraft which changed the face of modern warfare, creating a total and three-dimensional aspect.

 

After World War II, the invention of nuclear weapons and controlled missiles has greatly affected world military strategies.

 

In addition, in recent days, new military technologies such as electronic weapons, precision guided weapons, and military satellites have progressed remarkably in nuclear and non-nuclear fields. As a result, the aspect and means of war have changed drastically.

 

Furthermore, since science fiction is now a reality, we should be able to accurately predict how modern weapon technology will develop and we should develop military strategy and technology of our own.  <Figure 3-3-1> Co-relation between weapon system and strategy

 

 

War

War involved countries

North Korea

Korea

Weapon system

Strategy

Weapon system

Strategy

Korean War

 ∎Tank (T-34)

 ∎Aircraft

 ∎Blitzkrieg

 ∎Blitz warfare

 ∎Air control

 ∎Antitank weapon

 ∎Aircraft

 ∎Long-distance bombardment

 ∎Absorb force mobility

 ∎Air interception

 ∎Landing operations

Vietnamese War

U. S. A. Vietnam

Viet Minh

 ∎Electronic equipment

 ∎Electronic monitoring device

 ∎Large killing weapon

 ∎Flexible-reactive strategy

 ∎Science technological warfare

 ∎Large all- material war

 ∎Portable firearms

 ∎Tank

 ∎Assorted warfare

 ∎Guerrilla warfare

 ∎Small unit warfare

6-day War

Israel

Arab

 ∎Fighter-bomber

 ∎Bomber

 ∎Aircraft shock attack

 ∎Blitz warfare

 ∎Joint operations

 ∎Aircraft

 ∎SA-2 base

 ∎Defensive defense

 ∎United blockade

 ∎Blockade operations

10-day war

Israel

Arab

 ∎Aircraft

 ∎Tank

 ∎Anti-air weapon

 ∎Defensive attack

 ∎Complete mobilization

 ∎Aircraft

 ∎(Anti) tank weapon

 ∎Anti-air weapon

 ∎Shock operations

 ∎Joint operations

 ∎Anti-air defense

Lebanon war

Israel

Syria

 ∎Manless machine

 ∎Battlefield monitoring system

 ∎ANTI-R M

 ∎Aircraft

 ∎SAM exterminatory war

 ∎Electronic war

 ∎Deceptive war

 ∎Blitzkrieg

 ∎Anti-air weapon

 ∎Interceptor

 ∎Tank

 ∎Anti-air defensive warfare

 ∎Antitank defense

Falkland

War

England

Argentina

 ∎Nuclear submarine

 ∎Aircraft carrier

 ∎Civil ships

Aircraft carrier warfare

Out operations

Cargo ship

 ∎Air-to-air fleet/zone fleet

 ∎Missile

 ∎Sustained warfare

 ∎Anti-fleet defensive warfare

Gulf War

United army

Iraq

 ∎PCM

 ∎Stealth

 ∎C³I system

 ∎Gas bomb

 ∎Indirect strategy

 ∎Paralytic warfare

 ∎Maneuver war

 ∎Traditional rocket

 ∎Long-distance field gun

 ∎Early warning system

 ∎Tank

 ∎Blitzkrieg (invasion)

 ∎Sustained warfare

 ∎Maneuver war

 

<Table 3-3-1> Weapon system and strategy development as seen in recent wars

 

 

Age Classified

Weapon system

Strategy

Strategy Development

Ancient

 ∎Attack: spear, sword, arrow, catapult

 ∎Defense: armor, shield

Combat-centered strategy

 ∎Compact formation

 ∎Line formation

Medieval

 ∎Fire lock

 ∎Cannon

 ∎Column formation

 ∎3-soldier strategy

Modern

 ∎Rifles and swords

Consumption strategy

Exterminatory war strategy

 ∎Line formation

 ∎Inner line operations

 ∎Railway

 ∎Telegraph

 ∎Outer line operations

Today

 ∎Machine gun

 ∎Field gun

Consumption, exterminatory war strategy

 ∎Position warfare

 ∎Breakthrough strategy

 ∎Vertical center defense

 ∎Tank

 ∎Aircraft

 ∎Submarine

 ∎Blitzkrieg

 ∎Three-dimensional combat

 ∎Nuclear shell

Indirect strategy

 ∎Cold war

 ∎Electronic weapon

 ∎Rotor aircraft

 ∎COIN weapon

 ∎Irregular warfare

 ∎Precision guided weapon

 ∎Offensive movement

 

<Table 3-3-2> Transition process of weapon system and strategy and tactics