국제로비스트_National Defence_THE YULGOK PROJECT SYSTEM (Mr. Jung-Sun Kim)_11

 

 

Analysis of Modern Weapon Systems

 

 

Land combat weapons

 

 

Machine gun

 

Machine guns are divided into ‘light’ machine gun and ‘heavy’ machine gun types.

 

Light machine guns are a common firearm for infantry units and they improve the attack force mobility and firepower of the squad, the lowest combat unit.

 

As well, they provide a main body of final prevention firing in the formation of a defense camp.

 

Weapon system

U. S. A.

Russia

Atomic bomb

1945

1949

Hydrogen bomb

1953

1954

LRB

1953

1957

Strategy nuclear weapon

1955

1956

Nuclear submarine

1956

1962

SLBM

1957

1968

ABM

1960

1961

ICBM solid fuel

1962

1969

MIRV

1970

1975

 

                                                  <Table 5-1-1> Development year of major American and Russian weapon systems

 

Since it is improper to use the concept of light machine gun, as this infers a rifle was automated and its launch speed increased, heavy machine guns are used for reconnaissance, anti-air or land attack and are mainly equipped in tanks, armored motorcars, and aircraft.

 

In general, the light machine gun is manipulated by one or two soldiers and is similar in gauge to the rifle, but its effective range is about twice as long as the rifle.

 

 In comparison, the heavy machine gun is operated by at least three men and has an effective range of two to three times that of the light machine gun.

 

As with the rifle, the machine gun is becoming smaller in caliber and lighter in weight.

 

The U.S. replaced the 7.62mm M-60 machine gun with a 5.56mm XM-248 gun, and the newly developed Russian 7.62mm RPK light machine gun weighs only 5kg. Japan condensed the 7.62mm 62type machine gun to make it fit the Japanese physique.

 

Many nations are also trying to unify the caliber size of rifles and machine guns to decrease production costs and munitions support burdens, and to improve the launch speed to more than 600 rounds per minute to increase lethality.

 

 

Rifles

 

The rifle is a basic firearm for infantry and is the most convenient personal weapon for killing unprotected enemies within the shooting range.

Recently, most rifles have changed from7.62mm to 5.56mm to correspond with the trend of producing lightweight equipment. Since close combat usually occurs within 400 meters, the maximum effective range of rifles is typically between 400-500 meters.

 

Although the effective range of rifles is limited, they are convenient to carry because they are lightweight and it is easy to supply ammunition. Hand to hand combat is possible when a sword is attached to the rifle.

 

Today, most rifles are auto-charged and equipped with an automatic or semi-automatic launch device. Since the ultimate victory in war is secured when soldiers equipped with rifles occupy the land, the rifle has been developing daily, just like other weapon systems.

 

Nations are making efforts for the standardization and systemization of rifles, which will allow large-scale production of rifles with low costs, will make it easy to supply rifles in the war field, and will improve the performance of ammunition supply, maintenance, and training.

 

They are also aiming to make the caliber smaller, to decrease the size and weight of the weapon, and to improve its power and hit rate.

 

 England is now developing 4.85mm-caliber rifles, former West Germany is in the process of making 4.3mm rifles, and Russia has already developed the AKM, a high-powered rifle lighter than the M-14.

 

Field cannons

 

Field cannons are divided into ‘light’ cannons (105mm), ‘heavy’ cannons (155mm) and heavy cannon (175mm and 8inch gun) by caliber size. Howitzers and cannons are classified by function, and tow guns and self-propelled howitzers are classified by transportation methods.

 

In general, the field cannon has continuous firepower with a high level of precision for restricted local objectives. The strategic application of field cannons is determined by the strategic conditions, including direct firepower support for specific troop maneuvers, reinforcement of other artillery’s firepower, or flexible general support for the entire troop and central maneuvers.

 

The development trend in field cannons is to improve the hit rate by extending the shooting range with the use of long-distance shells.

 

Also, technology is being incorporated so that cannons have reduced resistance in their rocket-assisted propeller trajectory, and the weapons are lighter and include self propelling mechanisms to make maintenance, supply, and maneuvering easier.

 

Consequently, tow artillery has been changing into self-propelled artillery and because of its reduced weight, it can be airlifted by choppers. In addition, computers can now control the firing of the weapons, which increases their automation.

 

M-198 (155mm) self-propelled howitzers were developed in 1979 with an extended shooting range of 30,000 meters, and the M-109 (155mm) tow howitzer has become a strong means of firepower support with a shooting range of 24,000 meters and an amphibious high-speed force mobility of 35 ground miles or 4 sea miles.

 

Mortar

 

Mortar has a relatively short shooting range and since it has a simple structure, it is easy to treat and maintain, and the production price is low.

 

It can be launched even in the valleys of high land from the rear line or in deep trenches as an indirect firearm, and, considering its size, it is relatively lightweight. In addition, it can centralize or decentralize firepower and quickly change encampments.

 

It has a high launch rate as the structure of the shells is simple and easy to charge, but its hit rate is relatively low as fired shells land wide because the flying time is too long and the trajectory forms a high-angle parabola.

 

Mortar is divided into three types, 60mm, 81mm, and 107mm (4.2 inches), according the size of its caliber.

 

Mortar closely supports maneuvering troops in attack and defense, as 60mm mortar (effective range 1,800 meters) is organized into rifle units, 81mm mortar (effective range 3,000 meters) is organized into infantry battalions, and 107mm mortar (effective range 4,000 meters) is organized into infantry regiments.

 

In the American army, 60mm mortar disappeared after the Korean War but it reappeared in 1965, as it was needed inthe Vietnamese War.

 

Presently, there is 60mm mortar in rifle companies of airlift, infantry, and air maneuver army divisions, 81mm mortar in mechanical army divisions, and 107mm mortar in the army’s airlift and infantry regiment and in the artillery regiment of navy seals. XM-252, the new 81mm mortar recently co-produced by the U.S. and England weighs only 37kg but its shooting range is as long as 5,650 meters.

 

Development trends in tanks

 

Tanks of each nation vary in weight from 35 to 50 tons. Some nations think highly of the power of guns or armed protection, while others put high value on maneuverability even though they may have to sacrifice power and protection.

 

The gun turret cannon was just a small-caliber gun until World War II, but now it is a large-caliber gun reaching 90-152mm.

 

To improve the function of the cannon and make certain that it can hit its target on the first attempt, a device for gun stability was installed to fire accurately even while the tank is in motion and laser calculators or trajectory calculators increase the hit rate.

 

In addition, forward-looking infrared systems are used for night fire and aiming.

 

Nations are making progress in advancing the tank’s force mobility, reducing the weight of the tank, miniaturizing the body of the tank, and reinforcing the tank’s engine generating power, as well as improving the tank’s ability to cross open fields, rivers, and wet land.

 

To improve armor, manufacturers try to reduce the possibility of penetration by improving materials used in armor, and by doubling the armor on panels.

 

Since its debut in 1916, the tank has been a leading ground weapon. On the other hand, antitank weapons have diversified in kind and have increased in number and power.

 

Nations have developed measures to hinder tank maneuver ability and to penetrate the armed panels, and, of course, the tank cannot avoid threats from air fire and the CBR weapons of aircraft, choppers, or missiles.

 

Armored motorcar

 

In advanced countries, the ground army is mechanized and motorized and the defense area per soldier is large.

 

Today’s principle of mechanized infantry strategy includes boarding combat and field combat.

 

Armored motorcars provide close fire while tanks support long-distance large-quantity destructive fire in the united operation of the entire armed forces.

 

With tanks, armored motorcars guarantee the success of attack operations like breakthrough, siege, and war, by expanding fire and maneuverability, and adding to shock effect.

 

Armored motorcars include armed personnel carriers (APC) and armed infantry combat cars (MICV, IFV, and CFV). APC protect infantry from small firearms or from shell splinters in land combat, and are for river and waterway crossing and entry into areas with radioactive fallout from the use of nuclear weapons.

 

For these reasons, the Americans use the M-113 and the Russians use the BTR, which serve as the transport for one squad, and consider maneuverability not power.

 

MICV are armored motorcars, such as the Typhoon MICV of former West Germany, the Russian BMP, and the American IFV/CFV.

 

With these motorcars, the infantry attacks with small firearms under the protection of a 70mm gun and machine gun, when the situation permits.

 

The U.S. has developed and is currently testing the HIMAG, a high functioning armored motorcar that can reach speeds of 95km per hour.

 

 In the automatic firing division, Russia has recently developed and stationed the BMP-1 for 11 boarding that is equipped with a 73mm cannon and antitank missiles,and weighs 12 tons in automation fire division.