국제로비스트_National Defence_THE YULGOK PROJECT SYSTEM (Mr. Jung-Sun Kim)_13

 

 

Analysis of Modern Weapon Systems

 

 

Aviation, air defense weapons

 

 

Hawk, a medium/low altitude defensive missile

 

The Hawk missile is an anti-air weapon system capable of detecting unidentified aircraft invading at a medium/low altitude and intercepting it after the pursuit and identification of such an object. Hawk stands for Homing All the Way Killer.

 

The main mission of Hawk missiles is to protect our forces from enemy aircraft, and these missiles are capable of reacting to two objects simultaneously.

 

The first action radar of the Hawk system is the pulse radar that captures objects at a medium/low altitude.

 

It does not differ greatly from ordinary radar, except that it has an object identification device. In addition, this radar has a function for moving object identification, and shows moving objects by separating them from other images.

 

In other words, the radar has the capability to display an object that invades at an altitude on the indicator by separating such object from the echoes coming from the same background.

 

At the same time, the bearing and distance of an object are displayed. In the case of enemy aircraft invading at a low altitude, it reacts to such aircraft with the continuous-wave type radar called the continuous-wave capture radar.

 

The speed and bearing of an object are displayed on the indicator. Next is the high-powered investigation radar.

 

This radar investigates the radio waves of the object and transmits a signal to the missile.

 

The missile receives the radio waves reflected from the object and the direct wave from the investigation radar and bases its calculation of a flight course on this information, allowing it to fly to the object.

 

At the same time, this radar also calculates the distance to interception and provides a forward angle to the launcher prior to missile launch.

 

The radar for distance measurement is the pulse type radar that provides the function of transmitting distance specification to the high-powered investigation radar by calculation of the distance only when it is impossible to measure the distance due to ECM caused by jamming. Usually, this radar only receives signals to calculate the distance and does not generate radio waves.

 

The control headquarters, the brain of Hawk troops, provides a command and control function using these sensors, and the airlift fire command console supports this. Heliborne, or troops using choppers, may make an attack or perform landing operations, as a part of the HAWK system also consists of an airborne shooting squad.

 

In this case, the console serves as the means to control each device.

 

The general structure of the HAWK system consists of command console, high-powered investigation radar, launcher, pallet and generator.

 

The console provides the functions of instructing the indication of an object and operating the launcher with 3 HAWK missiles, which provides a forward angle anda high angle to missiles by receiving launch specification from the high-powered investigation radar.

 

A missile is classified into the front body and the rear body.

 

The front body consists of a guidance control device, and the rear body consists of a warhead including an explosive device and 4 triangle wings operated by a missile control device. At the rear end of one of the wings, there is a steering wing, and the projection type is based on the solid rocket motor.

 

The gunpowder of the booster burns from the inside of the middle part.

 

If propelling power increases, a missile accelerates quickly and the inside of the projection device is ignited so that a missile can continue to fly at a fixed speed.

 

The missile guidance type is a semi-guidance pursuit type.

 

The ground high-powered investigation radar displays an object, and a missile receives the reflected wave to calculate the course and steer its way by comparing the direct wave coming from the object subject to investigation.

 

Even if it does not directly hit the object, the warhead part ignites, using the fuse, when a missile passes within a certain range of the object.

 

However, if the missile does not hit the object, it becomes a suicidal explosion because it is dangerous if the missile continues to fly.

 

Missiles are contained in the container of the pallet platform, which can contain up to 3 missiles. When loading a missile onto the launcher from the pallet, the rorar, a small vehicle with a caterpillar, is used.

 

Anti-air missile, patriot

 

The XM-M-104 patriot missile was developed as part of ground-to-air missile development (SAM-D) based on improved Nike and Hawk systems.

 

This missile wields its power in the entire airspace as its altitude ranges from a low of 30m to a high of 30,000m, so that it can be used under any circumstances of electronic war.

 

With one missile, the launch system can react to multiple objects at the same time.

 

Above all, this system uses the AN/MPQ-53 radar with multi-purpose functions and is capable of simultaneously conducting object searches and guiding pursuit missiles.

 

In addition, based on the TVMG guidance type, it transmits required data to the ground from a missile in flight; on the ground, the situation of the missile is identified, and command radio waves transmit data for adjustment and calculation. Missiles can be guided more effectively by this command.

 

At the same time, newer data is accumulated by the ground defense system.

 

This single radar is equivalent to the capacity of nine Nike or Hawk radar systems. As stated above, in addition to command and guidance, automatic operations, such as enabling guidance against ECM, is possible by confirming the status of the missile arrangement that ensures TVM type pursuit.

 

Data received by the missile in flight is transmitted to the ground command post, and this new data is used to accurately pinpoint an object.

 

The second feature of the weapon is a control calculator function, called AN/MSQ-104,of control station.

 

The data for the organization of two stations (for manipulation personnel for fire command and for telecommunications) is maintained by a specially designed application calculator.

 

This high-speed calculator is organized with two groups of memory devices and input and output devices, and has a calculation capacity of 1 million times per second.

 

The fire control calculator is the memory device in high-speed magnetic tape, data on the battle target is contained in special tape, and the command calculator records and revises the installation position of antenna, radar visibility, and horizon or blind zones.

 

The next feature is the console that manages all the data and operates functions like radar search, pursuit, object identification and confirmation, missile capture and guidance command, missile launch order, and contact with neighboring patriots. It also helps determine the first combat target and searches for and removes defective system parts through threat and danger of target.

 

The right and left screens show synthetic photography to indicate opponent situation and combat ranking.

 

In addition, data pertaining to aircraft within the airspace of the combat area, air combat target, and non-combat areas are indicated on the screen of the manipulation personnel.

 

These screens can also combine all the data and use the information to hypothesize and project the combat situation.

 

The fire commander orders shooting by observing the whole situation.

 

The guidance of XM-M-104 missiles is performed by commando type and semi-active radar pursuit guidance systems, and it has a nuclear or high-functioning detonator as its warhead. In addition, projection power can be achieved by using the solid fuel TX486rocket, which can achieve hypersonic speed.

 

This missile, with a length of 5.2m and a diameter of 42cm, can be stored for 5 years and, with tail assembly, it can pursue manned aircraft.

 

In addition, the test of shooting down a target with a distance of over 25 km, with the missile launched in the air using TV-type guidance according to ground station control, has succeeded.

 

The wide protection zone and rapid response it displays led to its extremely high function in the Gulf War as new air defense system.

 

Nike High-altitude defense missile

 

The Nike missile is divided into two parts: body and booster. Four long triangle wings that constitute the whole warfare are attached to the body.

 

A triangle stability wing, or four receiving antennas with stability function, is placed near the front end and the four steering wings are attached to the rear end of the long triangle wings to control the rotation of the missile.

 

Guidance and control indicate the type of guidance radar and the ground signal from the guidance radio wave is received through the antenna of the triangle stability wings at the front end of the body. The control device is attached to the front and rear parts of the body.

 

The front part generates and amplifies the control device, and the rear part generates a mechanical signal and accurately guides the course of the missile by operating and steering the operation device.

 

A third of the front end, just behind the stability wing, is the actual warhead, which is covered with high-functioning charging gunpowder. It explodes according to an explosion order from the ground. How does the Nike missile capture the target in order to shoot it down?

 

First of all, radar controls the capture of the target. If target information is received from the site, the radar starts the search and captures the target. Then, it immediately sends the data to the target track radar.

 

After the target track radar confirms that it is indeed the target indicated by headquarters, the antenna is pointed to the approximate location of the designated target.

 

Therefore, three manipulation personnel cooperatively operate the manual control, and then each manipulation personnel fixes the target on the scope after measurement and pursuit, resulting in the azimuth angle, altitude, and distance of the target.

 

In this way, the azimuth angle, altitude, and distance are outputted hourly through the analog calculator.

 

The analog calculator converts the numerical value or variable into consecutive information like warfare, rotation, and angle.

 

The target measurement radar operates in tandem with target track radar. This radar increases equipment radar to improve the function for interception of opponent radio waves, and the model is similar to that of the target track radar.

 

However, the target track capacity is improved, in spite of radio wave interception, because of the enhanced equipment.

 

The missile track radar sends the missile position to the calculator after continuously tracking the launched missile and, at the same time, it relays the signal from the calculator while the missile transmits the command radio wave for control or detonation.

 

For that, the radar locks on the target, using the missile which launch preparation has prepared by loading it on the launcher, and the missile continues to track the object, even after the launch. The launcher has a telecommunications device or inspection test device in addition to the original function of missile launch.

 

When the missile launched from the ground escalates to a specific altitude, according to continuous engine operation, the booster burns and is automatically separated and the model command of the calculator from the ground is delivered through the missile track radar.

 

As the missile descends, it moves to the spot of interception according to the guidance command.

 

If the missile track radar pursues the missile and it continuously sends the missile position to the calculator, the calculator guides the missile to the spot of interception by sending the control command to the missile after calculating the point in which the target and missile will meet, in conjunction with the specification of the target’s position as sent from the target track radar.

 

Therefore, if the calculator sends the explosion command just as the difference between the position of the target and missile reaches zero, the missile explodes and the target is brought down by the generated fragments. In addition, after the missile is launched and the target is confirmed, it scuttles the missile according to the explosion command.

 

If the missile misses the target or the missile track radar temporarily fails, the missile is scuttled. It is possible to shift the control means of capture radar and deliver an early warning, as they are equipped in the integrated launch trailer.

 

Another trailer is the radar control trailer and the control system or table market of target track radar and missile track radar are included in that trailer.

 

Invisible electronic war

 

Electronic war refers to the intelligent competition for improved electronic activities of military forces by intercepting the electronic activities, like telecommunication or radar devices, of opponent forces while simultaneously reducing and preventing threats.

 

The radio wave used for electronic war, that is, the electronic spectrum, is extensive in low and high frequency bands, infrared rays, and visible rays. Electronic war can be divided into electronic support measure, anti-electronic measure, and ECCM.

 

The electronic support measure is continuously executed during peace time and warfare and performs a supporting role during warfare by determining the scale and type of the object, and by decoding the cryptography of the object by measuring, recording, and classifying the opponent’s radar wave or telecommunication radio wave.

 

Consequently, the electronic support measure detects the frequency, pulse width, antenna rotation number, operation type, modulation type, and position of dispatch point by using electronic intelligence and telecommunication intelligence gathered during by monitoring the opponent’s radar activities or telecommunications and gathering intelligence during times of peace.

 

Anti-electronic measures refer to the activities involved in demilitarizing or intercepting the threat of an opponent.

 

These measures include anti-warship fire or anti-air fire, and missile attack by affecting the opponent’s sensor or detection materials. Interception is classified as the electronic interception method, which interferes with the detection of an object by emitting the interception radio wave, and the mechanical interception method, which uses chaff spray or deception.

 

ECCM means the activities involved in effectively utilizing our force’s radio waves against electronic war performed by the opponent.

 

ECCM is formed by combining up-to-date electronic defense and trained personnel.

 

It is essential to acquire the opponent’s anti-electronic measure technology and its application.

 

The circuit assembled in ECCM radar includes log receivers, which effect continuous interception (like CW noise), and Pie receivers, which are distinguished according to variations in radar pulse, wave type of interception radiowave pulse, or frequency precision level. Non-Coho receivers identify the opponent by the difference in expansion of amplitude factor of the reflection caused by chaff and the reflection that is returned after bumping into the object.