국제로비스트_National Defence_THE YULGOK PROJECT SYSTEM (Mr. Jung-Sun Kim)_14

 

 

Development of A Weapon System

 

 

Development of science and technology

 

 

Civilization has changed in various ways due to the development of science and technology.

 

Around 300 B.C., science commenced in the Hellenic area with the work of Archimedes and Euclid, and it started to develop in Arabic commercial activities from the 9th to 10th centuries where, during  a period of Saracen prosperity, it surpassed the work of Euclid.

 

Science progressed even further as research in alchemy led to the manufacture of gunpowder and chemicals. Until the second half of the 18th

 

century, industrial methods and technologies were basically based upon medieval

 

handcraft industries. The American War for Independence in 1776, the French Revolution in 1789, the Napoleonic Wars, and other modern revolutions created major changes in economic living. Under capitalist economics from the end of the 18th century, small handcraft industries

 

changed primarily to large production factory industries.

 

On the other hand, there was repeated warfare in many nations at this time, and progresses in the development of science and technology brought about innovative changes to weapon systems directly connected to warfare. In other words, there were successive developments that led the progression from ancient primitive weapon systems based upon human power to the precision guided weapons of today.

 

New developments in science and technology created new weapons, weapons that are divided into science and technology for peace and science and technology for war.

 

 

Development of western weapons

 

 

Rifles

 

Primitive peoples used sharp stones for hunting.

 

They used pikes made of wood for remote distance hunting, and they happened to invent the bow by realizing the potential of a branch’s elasticity.

 

However, as time went on, it became necessary to expand power forsurvival under more and more complicated societal and natural conditions.

 

From that time on, civilization began using domestic tools for other uses, such as attacking and defending, and the age of war began. The invention of firearms and the atrocities of the World Wars made it possible to develop more advanced weapons.

 

 

(1) Gunpowder invention and water blister

 

Gunpowder invention was itself a major development from earlier weapons and, surprisingly, there are records that gunpowder was used in the Orient before it was used in Western countries. China used gunpowder in war around the 3rd century, and Korea used gunpowder under General

 

Choi Moo Sun.

 

However, this gunpowder could not be used to shoot bullets at all. Rather, it was used as a bullet itself, shot by catapult. Bacon, a French scientist, worked on explosives using a mixture of sulfur, charcoal and other chemicals, and in his laboratory in 1249 he finally invented black gunpowder.

 

In 1354, Schwaltz, a German, invented the first cannon. In China and European countries at the beginning of the 14th century, hand-held steel and

 

iron firearms were developed.

 

 

(2) Firelocks

 

Fire lock muskets were developed from water blister. These muskets consisted of a wick dipped in salt bound with string with a capacity for breech loading. A spring-loaded percussion cap provided the spark to ignite the coal for live gunpowder.

 

The shooter is positioned with the wooden stock of the musket braced against his shoulder and the ball is shot out of the barrel with an explosion of gunpowder. Muskets were developed in Europe, including Germany, around 1500 and were gradually supplied to other nations.

 

 

(3) Wheel triggers

 

The fire lock could not hold live coal on rainy days and it was difficult to carry parts.

 

To correct these faults, a wheel trigger gun was designed using principles of igniting gunpowder with live coal.

 

This wheel trigger gun was invented by Italian Leonardo da Vinci in 1508. In 1517, the German Kifua improved on the initial design, but this wheel trigger gun was still difficult to produce and frequently had problems like failing to shoot.

 

 

(4) Percussion system guns

 

The top-loading type of gun was generally convenient for use with live coal, however in June 1807 the Scottish Fosid invented shock gun using this principle that gunpowder can be fired by shock.

 

The top-loading type gun, which dominated for the past 250 years, was the successor to the shock gun.In 1836, the English army adopted this equipment and afterwards it was widely used around the world.

 

It pushes poboom in the center of fire hole and gun barrel and is fired by hitting it with an iron pin.

 

 

(5) Automation processes

 

When looking back upon the development of modern rifles, it seems like innovative development in automatic rifles really began from the end of World War II to the 1950s.

 

Development moved from single firing breech loading mechanisms to automatic rifles to automatic magazine rifles, and finally the automatic gun was developed.

 

Today’s M-16 and AK rifles are the realization of this automation process.

 

Rifles play a strategic supporting role in that they enable machine gunners to move forward during attack and defense.

 

Rifles can be made to fire automatically in three ways: through gas reaction, counter-action or delayed strike.

 

 

Percussion devices were invented in England in 1818. In 1821, Wesley Richard revised these caps to fit onto rifles.

 

Rifles for individual firearms and machine guns for combat situations were made at that time.

 

 

Machine guns

 

As far as infantry combat was concerned, machine guns were a conspicuous addition after World War I.

 

Before that, the machine gun was inexact and unreliable. However, the machine guns produced by Maxim during World War I showed high functioning and exactness. Maxim improved their machine guns, which used counter-action firing, and after the end of the 19th century, they

broke from traditional ideas and created a gun that could be used more easily by a shooter in a prone position.

 

This was the world’s first automated machine gun that used the combustible force of ignited gas as its firing mechanism, and it replaced manual machine guns that normally required the shooter to stand.

 

Due to World War I, weapons were developed further so that finally individual people could carry and operate light machine guns and automatic firearms.

 

Maxim machine guns attached to tripods and light machine guns attached to dualpods prevent access from opponents during combat as opponents cannot move easily within their maximum shooting range. This fact affected the strategies of the next generation, as all commanders must remember World War I combat where machine guns were a key factor in determining success or defeat.

 

After World War I, each unit was advised to have one machine gun, automatic rifles were in large supply, and a test to arm all unit members with automatic rifles was operated.

 

In the mid 1950s, NATO adopted small firearms of 7.62mm×51mm,as the standard shot, and a new machine gun, the GPMG, which used the same rifle and shot, were developed.

 

This concept of the machine gun originated with the GermanM-34 and M-42 machine guns.

 

This machine gun was attached to a tripod and played the role of a heavy machine gun in support and defense fires, but it could also be installed to a dualpod for attack firing.

 

The German army’s GPMG caused many NATO nations to arm themselves with this machine gun and save costs. However, the GPMG hardly satisfies light and heavy machine gun requirements now.

 

It is too heavy for a soldier to carry the GPMG, and, moreover, its installation on a dualpod lackspower when it is used for cover or defensive fire.

 

The GPMG uses an air-cooling system and therefore continuous fire results in the necessary replacement of the gun barrel, and it is inconvenient to carry spare gun barrels. Special gun barrels should be made with chrome or Stellide, linings that are abrasive-resistant for heat-resistance.

 

However, notwithstanding this defect of the GPMG, with small-caliber and light machine guns it could continue to be used under otherwise satisfying conditions.

 

In the second half of the 1960s, 5.56mm M-16 rifles were used during the Vietnamese War.

 

The rifle caliber was reduced in size and the 5.56mm light machine gun was introduced.

 

Light machine guns using cartridges were popular.

 

In some instances, light machine guns with heavy gun barrels were developed, as the rifle’s weight was increased under the same principles of machine gun design, but the light weighting and compatibility of the rifle were maintained, and division firepower was reinforced.

 

These 5.56mm caliber light machine guns were recommended for use with a 5.56mm SS109 shot as the second small firearms standard shot. Russia recently adopted 5.45-mm guns of small-caliber with increased combat power.

 

NATO recommended the 5.56mm SS109 shot, as the small firearms standard shot and the light machine gun of 5.56mm caliber will be adopted more and more.

 

However, it is expensive to change small firearms’caliber, so light 7.62mm caliber machine guns will be used for the time being, as some NATO nations only recently adopted the small 7.25mm firearms.

 

We should recognize that if new rifles are developed, there will be new developments in light machine guns.

 

This is because strategically light machine guns are necessary and they are particularly essential for division equipment.